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Art Nouveau (1890-!920)


Jugendstil (1890 – 1920): In 1896 the magazine "Die Jugend" (The Youth) appeared in Munich, a forum where the Avant Garde - artists and writers could publish their works. Enjoying a wide acceptance this magazine was to later give the art of the time and region its name.

Jugendstil grew to become an international style as part of Art Nouveau, and found its resonance between Floralismus (Patterism) and Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) from 1890 – 1920,France: ART NOUVEAU, England: MODERN STYLE und in Austria: SECESSIONSSTIL .

Jugendstil began as an opposition to the Historismus (Classical Style) of the 19th. century („Ringstraßenstil“) and became an expression of the Avant Garde, the „Neuen Modernen“ (New Moderns), who turned away from the excentric style as proported by Hans Markart (New Baroque), then set new styles for all areas of modern art and daily life at the time. Material, Function and Design became one with the object itself.

 
„I would like to remind you, that once, anyone who made a household article, made it as something useful, and at the same time made it as a work of art. Today, very few things can be seen as works of art.“ William Morris.

William Morris and the Art and Crafts movement in England can be see as pioniers in the new Style.
In Scotland it was the Glasgow-School with the architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who also had a strong influence on the Viennesse Jugendstil movement..

In France E. Berard and P. Gauguin, inspired by japanese woodcuts, with its emphasis on conture and flatness of style, were the pioners of this art with its emphasis on planimetry and dynamic linear expressiveness.
Toulouse Lautrec made this style popular with his posters and Hector Guimard as designer of the Paris Metro entrances.
In Spain - Antoni Gaudi, in the USA - L.C. Tiffany and the Goldsmith P.C. Faberge in Russia were responsible for creating visual images of Art Nouveau which have become popular parts of its cultural identity.

 
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